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Biography of Bhagat Singh
|Full Name||Shaheed-e-Azam Amar Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh|
|Father’s Name||Sardar Kishan Singh Sandhu|
|Birth Year||28 September 1907 in Punjab|
|Death Year||March 23, 1931 AD in Lahore|
- Born: 28 September 1907 in Punjab
- Death: March 23, 1931 AD in Lahore
- Field of work: freedom fighter
- Achievement: Bhagat Singh is a champion for every youth. His full name is Shaheed-e-Azam Amar Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh.
Life introduction of Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh, the heroic son of Mother India, was born on 28 September 1907 in a village called Baoli or Banga (present-day Pakistan) in the Lailpur district of Punjab. He was born in a Sikh family. His family was connected with the Arya Samaj.
His father’s name was Sardar Kishan Singh and his mother’s name was Vidyavati Kaur. He had 5 brothers and 3 sisters, in which the eldest brother Jagat Singh died at the young age of 11 years. Among all his siblings, Bhagat Singh was the brightest, sharpest, and the master of great intelligence.
Bhagat Singh’s family was already known for patriotism. His father had two brothers, Sardar Ajit Singh and Sardar Swarn Singh. At the time of Bhagat Singh’s birth, his father and both uncles were in jail. Even in Bhagat, the feeling of patriotism was filled from childhood.
The family perspective of Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh’s entire family was painted in patriotic colors. His grandfather Sardar Arjun Dev was a staunch opponent of the British. Arjun Dev had three sons (Sardar Kishan Singh, Sardar Ajit Singh, and Sardar Swarn Singh).
All three were also filled with patriotism. Bhagat Singh’s uncle Sardar Ajit Singh, along with Lala Lajpat Rai, organized a mass protest movement in Punjab to protest against the break-up of 1905. In 1907, there were sharp reactions against the Third Regulation Act of 1818.
The English government took steps to suppress it and Lala Lajpat Rai and his uncle Ajit Singh were imprisoned. Ajit Singh was sent to Rangoon Jail without trial. As a result of which Sardar Kishan Singh and Sardar Swaran Singh gave anti-public speeches in public, then the British put them both in jail.
Not only Bhagat Singh’s grandfather, father, and uncle, his grandmother Jai Kaur was also a brave woman. She was a great supporter of Sufi saint Amba Prasad, one of the leading nationalists of India at that time. Once when Sufi saint Amba Prasad was staying at Sardar Arjun Singh’s house, the police came to arrest him, but Bhagat Singh’s grandmother Jai Kaur very cleverly saved him.
If we study Bhagat Singh in-depth, then it is very clear that the immediate circumstances of Bhagat and his family perspective will have a deep impact on Bhagat. It is different that Bhagat Singh went two steps ahead of all this.
You are reading the biography of Bhagat Singh, who is also known as Shaheed-e-Azam Amar Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh.
Early life and education of Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh had his initial education in the school of his village Banga (Baoli). He used to go to school with his elder brother Jagat Singh. Bhagat Singh was wanted by all the children of his school. He used to make everyone his friend very easily. He used to like his friends a lot. Sometimes his friends used to come to leave the house after sewing them on the stair.
But Bhagat Singh was not like other normal children, he often left the moving class and went to the grounds outside. He loved the tones of the rivers, the tweeting of the birds every day. Bhagat was rich in reading and had a very sharp intellect. He would never forget what he used to learn once.
Bhagat Singh was admitted to Dayanand Anglo School for further studies. From here he passed matriculation. At that time, the non-cooperation movement was at its peak, Bhagat left school after being inspired by this movement and started to make the movement successful.
After this, he joined the National College of Lahore. He easily passed the examination conducted for admission to the school. Here he met Sukhdev, Yashpal, and Jayaprakash Gupta, who is considered his closest friends.
In 1923, he received an F.A. B. by passing a. Entered the first year of Bhagat Singh B.A. I was studying when his family started thinking about his marriage. Bhagat left home on this behavior of family members.
Impact of then circumstances on Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh was born at a time when there were movements all around for the freedom of the country. Everyone was opposing British rule in their own way. Born in such an environment, it was natural for Bhagat to be the most unique and talented.
He gave proof of this in his childhood. Once when mango trees were being sown in Bhagat Singh’s fields, at that time he was roaming in the fields with his father. Suddenly he left his father’s finger and started planting (strapping) the straws on the field when his father asked him what he was doing, Bhagat, he replied that I should take guns to liberate the country. I am sowing
Bhagat Singh was influenced by his uncle Sardar Ajit Singh. Because of all his brothers, Ajit Singh was the master of most revolutionary ideas. When he felt that he could not actively run his plans while staying in the country, he left India and started his revolutionary activities from Bushehr in Iran. His uncle’s impression of Bhagat Singh was seen differently.
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Bhagat Singh was in his teens at the age of 12 when the Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place in 1919. This incident greatly hurt his child’s mind. He reached Jallianwala Bagh the next morning of the massacre and brought a glass vial filled with blood-soaked with blood and on the asking of his sister Amrit Kaur, he brought with him the soil showing that he had gone to the garden and that vial Put flowers on it. Bhagat Singh used to offer flowers to her every day by the rule.
In the family in which Bhagat Singh was born, every member of this family was engaged to fulfill his duties for Mother India. His friends (colleagues) were also from the same background and his ideal leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai and Chandrashekhar Azad, so not expecting Bhagat to serve the country is like dishonesty.
Because of Bhagat Singh’s inclination towards revolutionary activities
Bhagat Singh was 12 years old when the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (1919) took place. Which had a profound impact on Bhagat’s young mind? And being hurt by this incident, the spark of a strong revolution broke in his mind.
When Bhagat was studying in class nine, he left school and went to attend congress conventions. On the call of Gandhiji Ashayeg movement, Bhagat Singh also made D.A.V. Left the school and started actively participating in the movement.
He would collect foreign clothes and goods from place to place along with his colleagues to burn their Holi and encourage people to participate in the movement as well.
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On 5 February 1922, due to the incident of Akali Dal locking policemen in the police station, Gandhiji announced the postponement of this movement.
The postponement of this movement discouraged Bhagat a lot and his faith in Gandhian policies, which was left, also came to an end. He followed revolutionary ideas in place of Gandhian principles and started to liberate India.
After the withdrawal of the Non-cooperation movement, Bhagat Singh made a deep study of the revolutions of Russia, Italy, and Ireland.
After this deep meditation, he came to the conclusion that freedom can be achieved by revolution. Keeping this belief in mind, he organized revolutionary youth by following the path of revolution.
Revolutionary activities of Bhagat Singh
(Biography of Bhagat Singh)
- Bhagat Singh started participating in revolutionary activities from a very young age. At the age of 13, he left school to make the non-cooperation movement a success.
- After the postponement of the non-cooperation movement, Bhagat Singh participated in the movement of the Sikh sect (Gurdwara movement). This movement was also successful.
- But after the success of the Sikhs in this movement, their egoism of orthodox and communal parochialism increased. For this reason, Bhagat Singh broke his ties with this.
- After Gandhiji’s movement ended in 1923–24, the enthusiasm of the people had cooled down, he started organizing plays with his companions Sukhdev and Yashpal to rekindle the feeling of independence among the people.
- His first drama was staged “Krishna Vijay”, which was based on the Mahabharata story. Somewhere in it, dialogues related to his patriotism were used by changing the dialogues. The Kaurava side was presented like the British and the Pandavas as Indians.
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- By 1923, by acquiring the membership of the revolutionary party, the famous revolutionary Shachindranath had become a special character of Sanyal.
- In 1923, he left Lahore (home) and moved to Kanpur at the behest of Sanyal with the aim of dedicating himself to the service of the country.
- To complete his revolutionary activities, he changed his name to Balwant Singh and Ganesh Shankar ‘Vidyarthi’ got him appointed in the editing department and stayed there for some time and started writing articles with the same new name.
- Six months later, after receiving information about his grandmother’s illness, he returned home on the condition of not getting married.
- Raja Ripudaman of Nabha organized a condolence meeting in Nankana Sahab to protest against the shootings and the demonic lathi charge, in which he organized a condolence meeting to commemorate the martyrdom of those martyrs.
Due to which the British removed them from the kingdom and put them under house arrest in Dehradun, which led the Akalis to mobilize to protest the injustice of the British. One such group was about to leave Bhagat Singh’s village Banga, and the government and the government people were pushing for a peak in proving these groups to be insignificant.
Sardar Bahadur Dilbag Singh, who was the brother of Bhagat Singh’s father’s family, had become an Honorary Magistrate in those days, then he announced that if the batch is to get food in this village, even dry leaves will not be available. Sardar Kishan Singh had given the responsibility to welcome these groups to Bhagat Singh.
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Bhagat started preparing to welcome the groups. At a certain time, he not only welcomed the groups with pomp but also gave a gathering and a speech to welcome them. Despite Bhagat Singh being a minor, the government brought out a warrant of arrest against him. Bhagat Singh was careful. He ran away after hearing this information.
- After this incident, Bhagat Singh moved from Lahore to Delhi and started writing in ‘Veer Arjun’ from his first name Balwant Singh.
- Formation of Nine Jawan Bharat Sabha in March 1926.
- Organized a movement against Simon by preparing Lala Lajpat Rai to lead the Simon Commission.
- The assassination of police officer Sanders in December 1928 to avenge the death of Punjab-Kesari Lala Lajpat Rai.
- Attempts to drive the accused of the Kakori case out of jail.
- On 8 April 1929, the bomb was thrown in the assembly with companions Batukeshwar Dutt and Sukhdev.
- Hunger strike on 15 June 1929 in favor of prisoners for equal treatment, food, and other facilities.
Refusal to Marry ( Biography of Bhagat Singh )
Bhagat Singh was very much like his grandmother. His love turned into fascination after the death of his brother (Jagat Singh). At his behest, Sardar Kishan Singh decided to marry into a wealthy Sikh family in the village of Poes.
The day the girl came to see them, they were very happy that day. He treated guests politely and sent them off to Lahore. But when he returned, he refused to marry. When the father asked the reason, he made various excuses. Said I will not get married until I get on my feet, I am still young and I will at least get married with a matriculation pass.
Listening to such excuses of his, Kishan Singh said that you will get married and this decision is the final decision. Their engagement was fixed. On the day of Bhagat Singh’s engagement, he left his father’s letter and left for Lahore to Kanpur. His words written in that letter are as follows: –
After this absconding, when Bhagat returned home, he got the news of his grandmother’s illness. At the same time, the family promised not to insist on marriage. Bhagat came and served his grandmother a lot, due to which his grandmother got well soon.
Formation of Naujawan Bharat Sabha (March 1926)
Bhagat Singh returned to Lahore and formed the Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926, which was the second face of the Hindustan Socialist Council. This gathering was established to inculcate the feeling of fierce nationalism.
The persons of that assembly were Bhagwati Charan and Bhagat Singh. Bhagat Singh became General Secretary and Bhagwati Charan Propaganda Secretary.
The main goals of establishing this were:
- Protecting Indian languages and culture, enhancing physical, mental health.
- To remove the evil practices prevalent in society.
- Achieve political goals by reaching out to the public.
- To establish a complete, independent republic of workers and peasants all over India.
- To inculcate the spirit of patriotism for the creation of an all India nation.
- Organizing farmers and laborers.
- To sympathize with the economic, social, and industrial movements, assisting those who are anti-communalism and helping in achieving the ideal democratic state of peasant laborers.
Bhagat Singh’s Jail Tour (29 July 1927) and Life After Release
(Biography of Bhagat Singh)
Bhagat Singh had returned from somewhere and landed at Amritsar station. Some steps had already been taken, when he saw that a soldier was following him. When he made his move, he also increased his pace.
Bhagat Singh ran between the two and began to have an eyeball. While running, he got noticed on the board of a house. It was written on – Sardar Sharduli Singh Advocate. Bhagat went inside that house. Lawyer Sahab was sitting at the table watching the file.
Bhagat told him the whole situation and took out his pistol and placed it on the table. Lawyer Sahab inserted the pistol inside the table and ordered the servant to have breakfast.
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After some time the policeman also reached there and asked the lawyer if he saw any runaway Sikh youth. The lawyer pointed to the office of Kirti.
Throughout the day Bhagat Singh stayed at the lawyer’s house and reached Lahore from Chharata station at night. When he was going home by the cash, the police surrounded Bhagat and arrested Bhagat.
The name of this arrest was on the basis of something else. A bomb was thrown by someone at the fair of Dussehra in Lahore, due to which 10-12 men died and more than 50 were injured. It was called the Dussehra Bomb Case and taking advantage of this opportunity, the British spread the rumor that this bomb was thrown by the revolutionaries.
On seeing this, it was the arrest of the Dussehra bombings, but in reality, its purpose was to get information about absconders of the Kakori case and other related revolutionaries. Even after the police tortures and thousands of attempts, Bhagat told him nothing. Bhagat stayed in Lahore jail for 15 days, then sent him to Bistral jail.
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Due to the legal proceedings of Sardar Kishan Singh, the police were forced to present Bhagat before the magistrate. A few weeks later, he was released on bail as he could not extort anything from Bhagat Singh. Bhagat Singh’s bail amount was 60 thousand, which remained in the headlines of newspapers at that time.
After coming out on bail, he did not do such a thing that his bail came in danger and his family would be affected. For him, his father opened a dairy near Lahore. Bhagat Singh now started watching dairy work and at the same time secretly carried out revolutionary activities. Dairy is dairy in day and revolutionaries at night. It was here that advice and planning would be woven.
Bhagat Singh was caught in bail. To break this case, he continued to appeal to the government to “either prosecute Bhagat or abolish the bail”. The question was raised by Bodhraj regarding Bhagat’s bail in the Punjab Council, on the same subject of Dr. Gopichand Bhargava, the government announced the abolition of Bhagat’s bail.
Learned the art of bomb-making
(Biography of Bhagat Singh)
The organization started receiving donations after Saunders’ slaughter. Now Hanspras was looking for a man who was skilled in bomb-making. At the same time, in Calcutta, Bhagat Singh was introduced to Yatindradas, who was skilled in the art of bomb-making.
On finding the person making the bomb, Bhagat Singh wished that one representative of each province should take this education so that bomb makers would not be rare in the future.
The work of making the gun, used for making bombs in Calcutta, was done in the highest cell of the Aryasamaj temple at Cornwallis Street. At that time, Phanindra Ghosh, Kamal Nath Tiwari, Vijay, and Bhagat Singh were present among those who learned this art.
After learning how to make bombs in Calcutta, the goods were sent to Agra in two batches. Two houses were arranged in Agra, one in the asafoetida market and the other in the barber market. Sukhdev and Kundal Lal were also called to teach the art of bomb-making in Nai Mandi.
Bomb-throwing scheme and its implementation in assembly
(Biography of Bhagat Singh)
The idea of throwing bombs in the assembly was in Bhagat’s mind from the time of the National College and he prepared the work outline while he was going from Calcutta to Agra. In order to implement this scheme, Jaidev Kapoor was engaged in such reliable sources in Delhi so that he could get a pass to the assembly whenever he wanted.
From these passes, Bhagat, Azad, and many other companions went there and made a complete outline of where the bombs were thrown and where they fell.
Three questions arose after this plan. These were the questions of when to throw the bombs, who should throw them, and who should run away after being thrown or arrested. Azad wanted that it was right to run away after throwing the bomb because he understood after going to the meeting after looking at all the paths that the bomb could be run away easily. His plan was to keep the motors outside and drive the bombers away easily.
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But Bhagat Singh was in favor of being arrested. He wanted to make the secret movement a people’s movement. He believed that one should be arrested and the public should be made aware of their views through the case.
Because things that cannot go anywhere can be said openly in the court during the trial. And those things will be made by presenting newspaper headlines. Which can easily convey your message to the masses?
Bhagat Singh had a plan to throw bombs in the assembly, so everyone knew that he would go the same to throw bombs. When Vijay Kumar Sinha supported Bhagat in the meeting, the importance of his talk increased further.
All these things were happening that news was received that the Viceroy has accepted the invitation of the government officials of the assembly on the day of Holi. On this information, it was immediately decided in the assembly that the Viceroy should be attacked. Rajguru, Jaydev Kapoor, and Shiv Verma were appointed for this task.
When, how, where to throw a bomb on the Viceroy was all decided. But this plan failed due to the Viceroy not coming out of the way. After this, it was decided to throw bombs on the assembly again.
Public safety bills and trade disputes bills were to be introduced in the Central Assembly. In which the purpose of the first bill (Public Safety Bill) was to thwart the movements within the country and the second bill (Trade Disputes Bill) was intended to deprive the workers of their right to strike.
Bhagat Singh decided to throw a bomb in the assembly on this occasion and to clarify his purpose, it was decided to throw a leaf.
On 8 April 1929, it was decided to throw bombs on the same day when the Viceroy’s declaration was to be heard. All the companions of Hinspras were ordered to leave Delhi. Only Shiva Verma and Jaydev Kapoor were to stay in Delhi. Jai Dev Kapoor placed both (Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt) at a place where the bomb could be thrown easily without harming anyone.
As soon as the bill was announced to be passed by the Viceroy’s privileges, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt went to their places and threw two bombs one after the other, and with those bombs, their objectives in the assembly, gallery, and spectators took place Also throw. There was chaos in the assembly all around.
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When the black smoke after the bomb exploded, the hall was empty. Among the members, only three people were seated Pandit Mohan Malaviya, Moti Lal Nehru and Mohammad Ali Jinnah. And Batukeshwar Dutt and Bhagat Singh stood in their place. After throwing the bomb, he shouted with full enthusiasm – “Inquilab Zindabad! Let imperialism perish. ”
After Bhagat Singh and Dutt surrendered, they were taken to the Delhi Police Station. One of the leaflets he threw was very cleverly picked up by the Hindustan Times correspondent and also printed it in the evening edition.
When Bhagat and Dutt were asked to give a statement in Kotwali, both of them refused, saying that what we have to say will be told in the court itself. The police put him in Delhi jail.
Legal proceedings and punishment after the arrest of Bhagat and Dutt
(Biography of Bhagat Singh)
After his arrest, on 24 April 1929, he wrote a letter to his father. On 3 May 1929, he met his father Kishan Singh. Asafali Vakil Saheb also came with his father. Sardar Kishan Singh was in favor of prosecuting the defense in full force and manner, but Bhagat Singh did not agree with his father’s decision. Bhagat Ji asked Asafali Ji some laws and the conversation at that time was over.
On 7 May 1929, Mr. Pool, who was then the Additional Magistrate, began hearing in the court of the prison. But Bhagat Singh said strongly that we will present our side before the session judge. For this reason, his case under Section 3 of the Indian law, Sessions Judge Mr. Sent to Milton’s court, and the trial began on 4 June 1929 under the Sessions Judge in Delhi Jail.
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The trial of the case ended on 10 June 1929 and on 12 June the Sessions Judge gave a 41-page verdict punishing both the accused of life imprisonment. And what caught everyone’s attention during this entire hearing was Bhagat Singh’s disinterest in defending himself. Afterlife imprisonment, Bhagat Singh was sent to Mianwali Jail and Batukeshwar Dutt to Lahore Jail.
After this, an appeal was made in the High Court for this case to spread his ideas more widely among the countrymen, and during the hearing of that appeal, Bhagat Singh again communicated his views to the countrymen and gradually people followed them. Began Bhagat Singh’s goal was being largely successful.
On 13 January 1930, upholding the judgment of the session judge, the sentence of life imprisonment was pronounced.
Hunger strike in jail by Bhagat Singh (15 June 1929– 5 October 1929)
(Biography of Bhagat Singh)
Bhagat Singh and Dutt were placed in the European class during the Assembly Bomb Case trial. Bhagat was treated well there, but Bhagat was one of the living people for all. In prison there, he went on a hunger strike on 15 June 1929 to protest against the misbehavior and discrimination happening to Indian prisoners.
He also wrote a letter to the officer of Miawali Jail on 17 June 1929, with reference to his transfer from one jail to another. His demand was legal, so in the last week of June, he was converted into Lahore Central Jail. At that time he was on a hunger strike. Due to hunger, his condition had become such that the stretcher was taken to reach the cell.
On 10 July 1929, preliminary proceedings commenced in the court of Shri Krishna, the magistrate of Lahore. At that hearing, Bhagat and Batukeshwar Dutt were brought on stretchers. Seeing this, there was chaos in the whole country. In the sympathy of their comrades, fellow convicts in Boston’s prison announced their hunger strike. Yatindra Nath Das joined the hunger strike after 4 days.
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On 14 July 1929, Bhagat Singh sent a letter of his demands to the house members of the Government of India, in which the following demands were made: –
- As political prisoners, we should also be given good food, so our food level should be like that of European prisoners. We do not ask for the same dose but want the same level of dosage.
- We should not be forced to do honorable work in jails in the name of power.
- Without any restriction, pre-approval (which should be approved by the jail authorities) should be provided to read and write books.
- Every political prisoner should get at least one daily letter.
- Every prison should have a ward of political prisoners, which should have the facility to fulfill all the requirements which are meant for the European people and all the political prisoners living in a prison should live in the same ward.
- Facilities for bathing should be provided.
- Good clothes should be found.
- U.P. The recommendation of Mr. Jagatnarayan and Khan Bahadur Hafiz Hidayat Ali Hussain in the Jail Reform Committee Committee that political prisoners should be treated like good class prisoners should apply to us.
Hunger strike became a matter of honor for the government. Here Bhagat was also losing 5 pounds of weight every day. On 2 September 1929, the Government set up the Jail Inquiry Committee.
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On September 13, the whole country along with Bhagat Singh was pained and drenched with tears when Bhagat Singh’s friend and colleague Yatindranath Das was martyred in the hunger strike.
There was a feeling of outrage in the whole country after the martyrdom of Yatindranath Das. Here the government was troubled by this hunger strike. Both the government and the leaders of the country wanted to end this hunger strike in their own ways.
For this purpose, the government-appointed prison committee sent its recommendations to the government. Bhagat Singh had feared that his demands would be accepted to a great extent. Bhagat Singh said – “We are ready to curb hunger on the condition that we all be given an opportunity to do it together.” The government agreed to this.
On 5 October 1929, Bhagat Singh finished a 114-day historic strike by eating pulses with his companions.
Bhagat Singh hanged
(Biography of Bhagat Singh)
The British government wanted to end the case (Lahore Conspiracy) at the earliest by giving it a final verdict. For this purpose, on 1 May 1930, the Governor-General Lord Irwin issued an order. Accordingly, a special tribunal of 3 judges was appointed.
It was empowered that it could make a one-sided decision in the absence of the accused, without the presence of the cleaning lawyers and the witness, and even in the absence of cross-examination of government witnesses. The hearing of the Lahore Conspiracy Case started in front of this tribunal on 5 May 1930.
After the boycott of this tribunal on 13 May 1930, a new tribunal was again formed in which Justice G.C. C. Hilton – Chairman, Justice Abdul Qadir – Member, Justice J.J. K. Tap – was a member. The same tribunal gave a one-sided verdict on the morning of October 7, 1930.
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The verdict was 68 pages in which Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru were hanged, Kamal Nath Tiwari, Vijaykumar Sinha, Jaydev Kapoor, Shiva Verma, Gaya Prasad, Kishori Lal, and Mahavir Singh were sentenced to life black water. Kundal Lal was sentenced to 7 years and Premadatta to 3 years.
It was absolutely determined by the attitude of the government that whatever happens, it will surely hang Bhagat Singh. This decision was appealed to the Privy Council in November 1930. But to no avail.
On March 24, 1931, it was decided to hang Bhagat Singh. But to avoid public rebellion, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged at 7.33 pm on 23 March 1931 and these great immortal personalities were martyred to inculcate the feeling of patriotism among their countrymen.
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