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Biography of Mahatma Gandhi
|Full Name||Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi|
|Birth Year||2 October 1869, Porbandar (Gujarat)|
|Death Year||30 January 1948, New Delhi|
- Date and place of birth – 2 October 1869, Porbandar (Gujarat)
- Death – 30 January 1948, New Delhi
- Work – Freedom fighter
Mahatma Gandhi is such a name that one remembers truth and non-violence upon hearing it. A personality who used it himself before giving advice to another. Who did not leave the path of non-violence even in the greatest trouble? Mahatma Gandhi was a political leader of a great personality. He played an important role in India’s independence.
Gandhiji was a supporter of the simple idea of high life, and he also implemented it completely in his life. The image of this idea is reflected in his whole life. It is for this reason that he was addressed by Netaji Subhash Chandra as the Father of the Nation in 1944.
Facts related to Mahatma Gandhi
- Full Name – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
- Other names – Bapu, Mahatma, Father of the Nation
- Date and place of birth – 2 October 1869, Porbandar (Gujarat)
- Parent’s Name – Putlibai, Karamchand Gandhi
- Wife – Kasturba Gandhi
- Education – Passed the 1887 matriculation examination,
- School – Bombay University, Samaldas College
- England Tour – 1888-91, Barrister’s Study, London University
- Names of children (children) – Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, Devdas
- Reason for fame – Indian freedom struggle
- Political Party – Indian National Congress
- Memorial – Rajghat, Birla House (Delhi)
- Death – 30 January 1948, New Delhi
- Cause of death – murder
Mahatma Gandhi Life introduction (Mahatma Gandhi Biography)
Birth, place of birth and early life
Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 at the house of Karamchand Gandhi in Porbandar, Gujarat. This place (Porbandar) is a coastal city in the state of Gujarat in western India. He was the last child of his mother Putlibai, who was the fourth wife of Karamchand Gandhi.
Karamchand Gandhi’s first three wives died during childbirth. During the British rule, his father was first Porbandar and later Diwan of Rajkot and Bankaner respectively.
Mahatma Gandhi’s real name was Mohandas and his father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi. For this reason, he got the full name Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi. He was the youngest of his three brothers. His mother, Putlibai, was a very religious woman who had a profound influence on Gandhiji’s personality.
Which he himself said to his friend and secretary Mahadev Desai at Yerwada Jail in Pune, “Whatever purity you see in me, I have found it not from my father, but from my mother … the only thing on my mind The effect left was the influence of saintliness. ”
Gandhiji was raised in a family of Vaishnavism, and Indian Jainism had a profound influence on his life. That is why he believed in truth and non-violence and followed him throughout his life.
Gandhiji’s wedding / Gandhiji’s married life
Gandhiji married 14 years of Kasturba Makhan Ji in 1883, in May, after completing 13 years of age. Gandhiji shortened his name to Kasturba and later people started calling him affectionately. Kasturba Gandhi’s father was a wealthy businessman.
Kasturba Gandhi was illiterate before marriage. After marriage, Gandhiji taught him to write and read. She was an ideal wife and stood firm with him in every task of Gandhiji. He supported him in all his works.
In 1885, when Gandhiji was 15 years old, his first child was born. But she lived for a while. In the same year, his father Karamchand Gandhi also died. Gandhiji had 4 children and all had sons: – Harilal Gandhi (1888), Manilal Gandhi (1892), Ramdas Gandhi (1897), and Devdas Gandhi (1900).
Education of Gandhiji (Mahatma Gandhi Biography)
Elementary Education of Mahatma Gandhi
Gandhiji had his initial education in Porbandar. From Porbandar, he studied in middle school. Gandhi’s further education was done in Rajkot due to his father’s change to Rajkot. Gandhiji was not the best student in his student life.
There was no special interest in his studies. Although Gandhiji was an average student, he also won prizes and scholarships in any competition and sport. I enrolled in a local school in Rajkot on 21 January 1879. Here he studied arithmetic, history, and Gujarati language.
In 1887, as soon as he passed the matriculation examination from Rajkot High School and joined Samaldas College, Bhavnagar for further studies. Due to being away from home, he could not concentrate on him and returned to Porbandar unwell. If the decision of further studies was left to Gandhiji, he wanted to become a doctor after studying medicine, but he did not get permission from home.
Higher education in England
After Gandhi’s father’s death, a close friend of his family, Bhavji Dave, advised him to advocate and said that after studying the barrister, he would get his civil post as heir to his father.
His mother Putlibai and some family members opposed his decision to go abroad, but Gandhiji promised his mother that he would eat vegetarian food. Thus, after convincing his mother, he was ordered to go to England.
On 4 September 1888, Gandhiji left for England. After coming here, he took studies seriously and started studying diligently. However, Gandhiji’s early life in England was full of troubles. He was also embarrassed many times due to his food and clothing. But he followed the promise given to his mother in every situation.
Later he joined the London Vegetarian Society (London Vegetarian Society) and became its executive member. Here he met some people of the Theosophical Society who gave Gandhiji to read the Bhagavad Gita. Gandhiji started attending the conferences of the London Vegetarian Society and writing articles in his magazine. He stayed here for three years (1888–1891), completed his barristerial education, and returned to India in 1891.
Mahatma Gandhi’s time from 1891-1893
When Gandhiji returned to India in 1891, he received the sad news of his mother’s death. He was deeply disappointed to learn that advocacy is not the basis of a stable business life.
Gandhiji went to Bombay and practiced law, but could not establish himself and came back to Rajkot. Here he started writing the applications of the people. This work was also stopped due to an angry British officer.
Mahatma Gandhi’s visit to Africa (Mahatma Gandhi Biography)
After a year of unsuccessful practice of law, Gandhiji accepted the proposal of South African businessman Dada Abdula to become a legal adviser. In 1883 Gandhiji left for Africa (Durban). This journey and the experiences there gave an important turning point to Gandhiji’s life. During this journey, Gandhiji saw the discrimination happening with the Indians.
Some such incidents happened to him which led him to experience atrocities with Indians and blacks such as: On 31 May 1883 he was pushed by a white officer in the car while travelling to Pretoria, despite being a first-class ticket and he chuckled Spent the night because they could not ask anyone for fear of being humiliated again, in another incident a horse driver beat them because He refused to travel on a pedestal by giving a seat to a white Englishman, there were some incidents which changed the course of Gandhiji’s life, such as stopping the Europeans from going to hotels safe.
This humiliation was common to Indian traders and workers in Natal (Africa) and a new experience for Gandhiji. It is here that a new chapter in Gandhiji’s life started. Gandhiji thought that it would be cowardly to return to India from here, so they decided to protest against this injustice by staying there.
After this resolution, he remained in South Africa for the next 20 years (1893–1894) and fought for the rights and respect of Indians.
The First Phase of the Conflict in South Africa (1884–1904)
- Gandhi’s political activities remained soft during this first phase of the struggle. During this time, he only sent petitions to the government related to his problems and work.
- Formed the “Natal Indian Congress” on 22 August 1894 to bind the Indians in one thread.
- Started the process of publication of a newspaper called “Indian Opinion”.
- This struggle is known as the movement of traders and lawyers.
The second phase of the conflict
- The second phase of the conflict in Africa began in 1906.
- At this time, the political situation of the colonies had changed, so Gandhiji started the movement from a new level. It is from here that the beginning of the original Gandhian system is considered.
- Establishment of Tolstoy and Phoenix Sentiment in Johannesburg on 30 May 1910.
- Training of non-violence and satyagraha to activists of Congress.
Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival in India (Mahatma Gandhi Biography)
Gandhiji returned to India in 1915 at the age of 46 and made a subtle study of the situation in India. On the advice of Gopal Krishna Gokhale (Gandhi’s political guru), Gandhiji spent a year peacefully without any movement.
During this time, he visited the whole of India to get a sense of the real state of India. Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad in 1916. In February 1916, Gandhiji gave the first-ever speech at the Banaras Hindu University. Which was discussed all over India?
Active role in the Indian independence movement(Mahatma Gandhi Biography)
Champaran and Kheda Movement (1917–1918)
In the year 1917, Gandhiji launched a movement for the rights of the farmers living in the Champaran district of Bihar. This was Gandhiji’s first active movement in India, which gave Gandhiji the first political success. In this movement, he made non-violent satyagraha his weapon and also achieved anticipated success in this experiment.
In the late 19th century, the farmers of Kheda district of Gujarat became helpless due to famine and at that time the prices of commodities of consumption had gone up. The farmers were thus unable to pay taxes.
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Gandhiji took up this matter and after thorough investigation with the members of the Servant of India Society, spoke to the British Government and said that the farmers who are in a position to pay rent will automatically give it, provided the government is poor farmers. Please forgive the rent. The British government accepted this proposal and waived the rent of poor farmers.
Hunger strike in 1918 for the right of Ahmedabad mill workers
In 1918, the mill owners of Ahmedabad wanted to reduce the bonus given since 1917, even after the price was increased. The workers demanded an increase of 35% in wages in place of the demand bonus, while the mill owners did not want to increase more than 20%.
Gandhiji demanded to hand over the matter. But the mill owners raised 20% in defiance of the promise. Against which Gandhi Ji started a hunger for the first time. This was the most special thing in this strike. Due to the hunger strike, the mill owners had to accept the demand for labourers.
These movements established Gandhiji as a popular leader and a major pillar of Indian politics.
Khilafat Movement (1919–1924)
There was a movement by Muslims throughout the country to re-establish the post of Turkish Khalifa. This was a political-religious movement, which was launched to pressure the British. Gandhi Ji supported this movement. The main objective of supporting this movement was to get the support of the Muslims in the freedom movement.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1919–1920)
During the First World War (1914–1918), these strict rules were upheld by the Committee under the chairmanship of Sir Sidney Rowlett on the restrictions on the press and the arrest without any investigation. Which became known as the Rowlatt Act.
Which was widely protested all over India. That anti-agitation movement was called the Non-Cooperation Movement. The main reason for the birth of the Non-cooperation movement was the Rollat Act and the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919).
A nationwide strike was organized on 30 March 1919 and 6 April 1919 under the chairmanship of Gandhiji. All government work stopped on seeing all around. British officers became disillusioned with this weapon of non-cooperation. In 1920, Gandhiji became the President of Congress and inspired the Indian public to participate in this movement. Inspired by Gandhiji’s inspiration, every Indian participated extensively in it.
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In order to make this movement more effective and to strengthen Hindu-Muslim unity, Gandhiji joined the Non-Cooperation Movement with the Khilafat Movement.
According to government figures, in the year 1921, 396 strikes were conducted in which 6 lakh workers participated and during this time there was a loss of about 70 lakh workdays. Students stopped going to government schools and colleges, lawyers refused to advocate and the working class went on strike.
In this way, every Indian citizen in his own way helped to make this movement of Gandhiji a success. After the revolution of 1857, it was the largest movement that put the existence of British rule in India at risk.
Chauri-Chaura Scandal (1922)
By 1922, it had become the largest movement in the country. It suddenly turned violent during a peaceful protest rally at a venue. During the protest rally, the police arrested the protesters and jailed them. And a group of peasants set fire to a police station named Chauri-Chaura in February 1922. Many unarmed policemen died in this incident.
Gandhiji was very hurt due to this incident and he withdrew this movement. Gandhiji wrote in Young India that, “I am willing to bear every insult, every torture boycott, even death to save the movement from becoming violent.”
Civil Disobedience Movement (12 March 1930)
The aim of this movement was to achieve complete independence. Gandhiji and other leading leaders were beginning to doubt the intentions of the British whether they would fulfill their declaration of the grant of colonial self-government or not. Gandhiji led another movement, known as the Civil Disobedience Movement, on 6 April 1930, to pressurize this demand on the British government.
It is also called the Dandi March or Salt Law. Gandhiji took out this march from Sabarmati Ashram. The purpose of this movement was to collectively bow down to the government by doing some specific illegal acts. Seeing the intensity of this movement, the government sent the then Viceroy, Lord Irwin to the settlement. Gandhiji accepted this agreement and withdrew the movement.
Quit India Movement (August 1942)
After the failure of the Crisp Mission, Gandhiji decided to launch his third major movement against the British. The aim of this movement was to achieve independence immediately.
At the Bombay session of Congress on 8 August 1942, the slogan of British India was given and on 9 August 1942, at the behest of Gandhiji, the whole country joined the movement. The British government took a very strong stand against this movement. It took the government more than a year to suppress this movement.
Partition and independence of India (Mahatma Gandhi Biography)
Even as the British went, they divided India into two. During the Second World War, the situation of the British became very weak. He indicated to liberate India. With the independence of India, a separate state under the leadership of Jinnah also demanded Pakistan.
Gandhiji did not want to allow the partition of the country. But due to adverse conditions at that time, the country was divided into two parts.
Death of Mahatma Gandhi (30 January 1948)
Nathuram Godse and his colleague Gopaldas shot Gandhi at Birla House on January 30, 1948, at 5.17 pm. Jawaharlal Nehru gave information about Gandhiji’s murder in these words, “Light has gone from our lives and today darkness has fallen all around. I do not know what to tell you and how to tell. Our beloved leader, Father of the Nation Bapu is no more.
Gandhiji’s life-cycle (time-line)
Mahatma Gandhi Biography
- 1879 – Born – 2 October, Porbandar (Gujarat).
- 1876 – Gandhiji’s father Karamchand Gandhi changed to Rajkot, came to Rajkot with family, and engaged with Kasturba Makhanji.
- 1879 – Entered the local school at Rajkot on 21 January 1879.
- 1881 – Studied at Rajkot High School.
- 1883 – Marriage to Kasturba Makhan Ji.
- 1885 – Death of Gandhiji’s father, the birth of his first son in the same year, and his death sometime later.
- 1887 – Passed matriculation examination from Rajkot High School, admission to Samaldas College (Bhavnagar).
- 1888 – Birth of first son Harilal, departure for England for barrister’s studies.
- 1891 – Returned to India after studying Barrister, news of Mata Putlibai’s demise in her absence, first Bombay then later Vakalat unsuccessful in Rajkot.
- 1892 – Birth of second son Manilal Gandhi.
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- 1893 – Departure for Africa (Durban) by accepting the proposal of the legal advisor of African businessman Dada Abdula, Pretoria rail accident on 31 May 1893, face discrimination.
- 1894 – Start of the first phase of the conflict in South Africa, the establishment of the Natal Indian Congress.
- 1896 – Returns to India (for 6 months) and goes back to Africa with his wife and a son.
- 1897 – Birth of third son Ramdas.
- 1899 – Provided Indian Ambulance Service to help the British in the Boer War.
- 1900 – Birth of fourth and last son Devdas.
- 1901 – Returning home with family assuring African Indians to come back to help in times of need, visit India, attend congress sessions, and open office of Vakalat in Bombay.
- 1902 – Departure for Africa when Indians are summoned to Africa.
- 1903 – Wakalat office opened in Johannesburg.
- 1904 – Publication of Indian Opinion Weekly Papers.
- 1906 – Encouragement to help Indians during the Jullu War, resolve for lifelong celibacy, First Satyagraha in opposition to Asiatic Ordinance.
- 1907 – Satyagraha in protest against the Black Act (forced registration of Indians and other Asians).
- 1908 – First prison tour in South Africa (Johannesburg), second Satyagraha (re-prison visit).
- 1909 – The creation of the book Hind Swaraj during a return visit to England, November (between 13-22), to show favour on behalf of the South African Indians.
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- 1910 – May 30: Establishment of Tolstoy and Phoenix Sentiment in Johannesburg.
- 1913 – Leadership of The Great March 2000 Indian mineworkers’ march from Newcastle to Natal.
- 1915 – Return to India after 21 years.
- 1916 – Gandhiji’s stage speech for the first time on the establishment of an ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati River (in Ahmedabad), Banaras Hindu University.
- 1917 – Satyagraha movement for the rights of indigo farmers in the Champaran district of Bihar.
- 1918 – Mediation on the right of mill workers in Ahmedabad
- 1919 – In protest against the Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Satyagraha, which later became known as the Non-cooperation movement (1920), edited Young India (English) and Navjivan (Gujarati) Weekly magazine.
- 1920 – Returned the title of Kesar-e-Hind in protest of Jallianwala Bagh massacre, elected President of Homerul League.
- 1921 – Holi lighting of foreign cloth in Bombay under non-cooperation movement, 5 days fast in protest of communal violence.
- 1922 – Non-cooperation movement withdrawn due to the Chauri-Chaura scandal, treason trial, and imprisonment for 6 years.
- 1924 – Elected President in Belgaum Congress Adhivasan, 21 day fast for communal unity.
- 1928 – Participation in Calcutta Congress session, call for complete Swaraj.
- 1929 – Nationwide movement started by declaring 26 January as Independence Day at the Lahore session of the Congress.
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- 1930 – Dadi Yatra from Sabarmati Ashram to break the Salt Law, which was named as Civil Disobedience Movement.
- 1931 – Gandhi Irwin Pact, Gandhiji ready to participate in the Second Round Table Conference.
- 1932 – British acceptance of the Yerwada Pact.
- 1933 – The publication of a weekly paper titled Harijan, staging the anti-untouchability movement in the country by renaming the ashram built on the Sabarmati coast.
- 1934 – Establishment of All India Village Industries.
- 1936 – Establishment of Sevashram in Wardha.
- 1937 – Visit South India.
- 1940 – Vinoba Bhave was chosen as the first Individual Satyagrahi.
- 1942 – Failure of Cripps mission, Quit India campaign begins, Secretary Mitra Mahadev Desai dies.
- 1944 – Death of Gandhiji’s wife Kasturba Gandhiji on 22 February.
- 1946 – Meeting with the Cabinet Mission on communal riots in Bengal.
- 1947 – Bihar visit for communal peace, meeting with Jinnah and Government General Mountbatten, opposing the partition of the country.
- 1948 – Last 5 days of life fast in Bila House, blast in a prayer meeting on 20 January, murder by Nathuram Godse while going for prayer on 30 January.
Mahatma Gandhi’s Precious Words
Mahatma Gandhi Biography
- “Hate sin, not sinner”.
- “The change you want to see in the world, bring it first yourself.”
- “Real beauty is in the purity of the heart.”
- “Non-violence is religion, it is the way of life.”
- “Poverty is not a divine curse but an uncontrolled conspiracy.”
- “Purification of character should be the aim of all knowledge.”
- “Those who are hungry for their praise, prove that they do not have merit.”
- “Whenever you are faced with an opponent. Winning him with love.”
- “Non-violence is not to hurt any creature by thought, word, or deed, not even for the benefit of any creature.”
- “Where there is love there is life.”
- “I like your Messiah (Isha), I don’t like your Christians. Your Christians are the very opposite of your Messiah (Isha).”
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- “First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight with you, then you win.”
- “I do not claim any perfection for myself. But I claim a passionate seeker behind the truth, who is another name of God.”
- “I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and non-violence are as old as the hills. I have tried experiments on both of them on a grand scale with as much effort as I could.”
- “The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is a characteristic of the strong.”
- “Eye for eye will make the whole world blind.”
- “Happiness will be found when what you think, say, and what you do is in harmony.”
- “Live as if you are going to die tomorrow. Learn as if you are going to live forever. “
- “The culture of a nation resides in the hearts and souls of its people.”
- “Some people dream of success while others wake up and work hard.”
- “Without curiosity, there is no knowledge.” There is no happiness without sorrow. “
- “Believing is a quality, mistrust is the mother of weakness.”
- “If a man wants to learn, every mistake of his can teach him something.”
- “Use of Hindi in national practice is necessary for the progress of the country.”
- “Nothing worries the body like worry, and anyone who has little faith in God should be guilty of worrying about anything.”
- “Laughter opens the bales of the mind very easily.”
- “No excess of work, irregularity kills the man.”
- “More valuable than long speeches is to step an inch.”
- “Some of your work may be unimportant, but it is important that you do something.”
- “No one harms me without my permission.”
- “Anger is a kind of momentary madness.”
- “Even without work, consider it a steal from God. I do not know any other way of internal and external happiness. “
- “There is so much strength in non-violence that it makes even its opponents’ friends and gets their love.”
- “I do not want to suppress the provincial languages through Hindi, but also want to merge Hindi with them.”
- “One religion is beyond all speech.”
- “It is dishonest to believe in someone and not live it.”
- “No prayer without fasting and no fasting without prayer.”
- “My life is my message.”
- “The greatest weapon of humanity is peace.”
FAQ’s on Mahatma Gandhi
All things considered, Mahatma really signifies ‘Extraordinary Soul’. Being an individual who surrendered his profession as a lawyer, embraced the least complex of living for the government assistance of the individuals and for the Independence of India, the title of Mahatma was offered on Gandhi by Rabindranath Tagore for his commitments towards the country.
The Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 Porbandar, Gujrat.
The full name of Mahatma Gandhi is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
No! Mahatma Gandhi did not has any daughter. He has only four sons and their names are as follows:
Mahatma Gandhi was an enabling pioneer no simply because he engaged all Indians on a salt walk to degenerate the British financial framework. … Since he was the pioneer of Satyagraha, he likewise propelled all Indians to comprehend and learn obstruction through peaceful common insubordination.
In September 1906, in protest against the Asian ordinance issued against Indians in South Africa, Transvaal.
Mahatma Gandhi was humiliated and deposed at the Pietermaritzburg railway station in South Africa.
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